Syncrostim

Syncrostim®, equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) for single cow treatment 

The active compound in Syncrostim is eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation., previously known as pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSGPregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin: also called eCG. Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare’s serum which causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation.).

Whilst in mares, eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. is known to induce the formation of secondary corpora lutea to support gestationState between implantation and parturition of female viviparous pregnant species., when administered to cows it stimulates both luteinising hormone (LHLuteinising hormone: responsible for the final maturation of the follicle and ovulation.) and follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. stimulating hormone (FSHFollicle Stimulating Hormone: responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles.) activity [1]. 

Syncrostim indications are: 

Uses of eCG in cattle

Broadly, eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. may be used to overcome anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. in a number of situations. Animals in anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. do not express heatAlso “oestrus”. Physiological and behavioural phenomena that precedes and accompanies ovulation in female mammals. and present with small ovaries and an absence of follicles >10mm diameter [8].

Anovulatory anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. is a major barrier to efficient reproduction in the majority of herds, particularly those practicing seasonal calvingGiving birth to a calf., where the window of opportunity for cows to conceive is ~90 days [8].

Cows with low body condition score, less than 100 days postpartum or kept on pasture, and thus under nutritional restrictions, may be susceptible to falling into anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status..

Overcoming suckler inhibition

Prolonged postpartum acyclicity in suckled beef cows, caused by inhibition of LHLuteinising hormone: responsible for the final maturation of the follicle and ovulation. pulses when a calf is at foot, reduces the calf crop and is a drain on resources to beef cattle producers. LHLuteinising hormone: responsible for the final maturation of the follicle and ovulation. reserves are replenished between days 15-30 postpartum, yet suckling anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. can persist for up to 67 days [3].

Methods to overcome this include bull exposure, calf removal or hormonal treatment; bull exposure is often impractical and unpredictable; whilst weaning is costly, can negatively impact calf weight and lead to short subsequent cycles [9].

Administration of progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. through an intravaginal device has been shown to reduce this period of anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. through allowing maturation of postpartum dominant follicles and their subsequent ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals., followed by normal cycles9. Increased pregnancy rates have been observed when eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. is added to progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. protocols in cows under nutritional stress [10].

Improving reproductive performance in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols in beef cattle

Studies in beef cattle, in which P4-based FTAI protocols were supplemented with eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. concurrent with removal of the P4 insert, provided evidence that eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. increased the percentage of cows that ovulated to the FTAI protocol, increased circulating P4 following FTAI and increased fertilityAbility of a living organism to reproduce. From a zootechnical point of view: ability to give birth to a calf, a lamb, a goat or a piglet. to FTAI [6].

Reducing embryonic loss

The increased serum progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. following eGC treatment may also support embryonic survival rates, particularly as they have been observed at a critical time for embryonic survival (days 12 and 14 of the subsequent cycle) [5].

It is suggested that the higher levels of serum progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. are the result of changes to large luteal cells as they are responsible for 80% of CL progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. production [5].

Boosting ovulation rates

In stimulating growth of the dominant follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission., eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. has been shown to increase ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals. rates, especially in cows with low body condition score (BCS) or in postpartum anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. [10].

Whilst progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. device treatment alone can achieve pregnancy rates of 50% where the BCS >3 (1-5 scale), addition of eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. to the protocol allows similar (>50% pregnancy rate) in cows with a BCS ≤2.57 [10].

Improving follicle maturation

The LHLuteinising hormone: responsible for the final maturation of the follicle and ovulation. and FSHFollicle Stimulating Hormone: responsible for the growth of ovarian follicles. effects of eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. treatment can enhance follicular maturation and avoid follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. regression following removal of a progesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. device.

Reducing the postpartum period

Postpartum anoestrusState characterised by the absence of cyclicity and therefore the absence of heat. It is frequently observed after parturition for a longer or shorter period depending on the breed and physiological status. is reported to be the most important factor determining herd economy [7]. Studies have shown that 6-59% of animals remain acyclic 60 days postpartum, likely due to slow follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. growth and later ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals. [7].

Where ovarian activity is detected in the early postpartum period, the fate of the first wave dominant follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. is greatly variable. Studies have shown that whilst 46% may ovulate, 23% may become cystic – it is important to bear this in mind when ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals. of the first recruited dominant follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. could reduce the postpartum period by 26.4 days [3].

A recent trial [3] investigating the effects of eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation. administration on day 6 postpartum on ovarian activity demonstrated ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals. of the first wave dominant follicleSmall secretory or excretory cavity. Ovarian follicles grow until ovulation or female gamete emission. in 71.4% of eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation.-treated cows, whilst all untreated cows failed to ovulate. Further, the same trial reported a 100% ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals. rate by day 20 postpartum in eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation.-treated cows as compared to 0% in those not receiving eCGEquine chorionic gonadotropin, formerly known as PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophins). Gonadotropin extracted from pregnant mare serum. Causes the final maturation of the dominant follicle and ovulation.

Give a second chance to open dairy and beef cows with the SyncroPlus protocol!

SyncroPlus combines the use of PRIDProgesterone Releasing Intra-vaginal device: intra-vaginal device impregnated with progesterone.® Delta (ProgesteroneSteroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary which has the property of making the endometrium suitable for implantation, maintenance and development of the fertilized egg. (Progesterone also results in multiple activities for the endometrium, myometrium, cervix, vagina and udder.). It inhibits GnRH secretion by feedback action on the pituitary. Intravaginal Releasing Device) with the use of Syncrostim 500IU (Figure 2). 

Figure 2

Figure 2. SyncroPlus protocol

Summary SPC

 

References

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