Causes of infertility
Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is a key factor in determining milk output and profitability. The reproductive target to be achieved for optimum production in cows is to produce a live healthy calf each year, of the correct genetic merit and born at the optimum time without calvingGiving birth to a calf. problems. In order to meet these targets, the veterinarian needs to concentrate on ensuring clients achieve:
High submission rate of cows to natural or artificial service:
- Resumption of ovarian activity
- Detection of oestrusAlso known as heat, is the physiological and behavioral phenomena which precedes and accompanies ovulation in female mammals.
- SynchronisationTwo or more events that occur at the same time or in a precise coordinate succession: oestrus synchronization allows an organised and grouped artificial insemination. of oestrusAlso known as heat, is the physiological and behavioral phenomena which precedes and accompanies ovulation in female mammals.
High pregnancy rate to service:
- Sufficient capacitated sperm in oviductDuct through which female gametes are expelled from the ovary in animals. at ovulationExpulsion of an ovum from the ovary in female animals.
- FertilisationUnion of a male gamete (sperm) with a female gamete (ovum) to give an egg, or zygote. of ovulated ovum within 6-8 hr
- Proper management for good maternal recognition of pregnancy
Productive bovine reproduction involves controlling herd fertilityAbility of a living organism to reproduce. From a zootechnical point of view: ability to give birth to a calf, a lamb, a goat or a piglet. parameters in a given economic context. Moreover, the performance of a farm must be assessed at a collective level, but also at an individual level , each farm constituting a complex system in unstable equilibrium in which numerous factors interact.
The main reproductive events which take place between calvingGiving birth to a calf. and the time of fertile service will be reviewed and veterinary applications of this knowledge will be summarised.