Progesterone & Pregnancy Maintenance





Effect of Progesterone Supplementation after Artificial Insemination on Pregnancy Maintenance


Prof. Patrick Lonergan

University College of Dublin (Ireland)

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Patrick Lonergan received his Ph.D. from University College Dublin in 1992 in the area of in vitro production of bovine embryos. Following his Ph.D., he spent one year as a post doctoral fellow at the Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine, Oslo and a further 4 years at L’Institut National pour la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Tours, France, before returning to University College Dublin where he is now Professor of Animal Reproduction and part of a dynamic research group working on various aspects of cattle fertility. His main research interests are in factors affecting oocyte competence and embryo development and quality and understanding the maternal-embryonic dialogue associated with successful establishment of pregnancy. He has published more than 170 peer-reviewed papers and has presented numerous invited lectures and more than 250 abstracts at international scientific meetings. He was awarded a DSc on published work in 2005. He has served on the boards of the European Embryo Transfer Association ( and the International Embryo Transfer Society ( and was President of IETS in 2009.


Seasonal Calving System

Cycle of the Embryo

Timing of Embryo Loss

Embryonic Loss Rate

Studies about Embryo Viability

Causes of Embryonic Mortality

Effect of Progesterone on Embryo Survival

Effect of Progesterone on the Embryo's Size

Progesterone Changes Gen Expression

Different Effects of Progesterone In Vitro or In Vivo after ET

Embryo Studies: Impact of Progesterone

Summary: Progesterone Post-Conception

Embryo Development in lactating and Nonlactating Dairy Cows

Short-Term Progesterone Treatment

Alternative Strategies to Elevate P4

Final Conclusion